Ancient Lake Tonawanda does exist. It is well documented and its perimeter can be identified. At the Wilson-Tuscarora State Park is an image with a description of what ancient Lake Tanowanda looked like in its earliest stages, before the Jaredites arrived:

Lake TonawandaLake Tonawanda

 As the waters receded from off the land, the lake became smaller and smaller. Remnants of ancient Lake Tonawanda can still be seen today:

Lake Tonawanda

Lake Tonawanda Map 1825

 Erie Canal Map, western quadrant, date: post 1825. [Hi Def Version]


Marshes: The great Tonawanda Swamp, which extends over portions of Genesee and Niagara counties, lies partly in this (Orleans) county. It is twenty five miles in length from east to west, and from two to seven in breadth. It is bounded on all sides by plains a little elevated above its surface. (J. H. Mather, and L. P. Brockett, M. D., A geographical history of the state of New York: embracing its history, government, physical features, climate, geology, mineralogy, botany, zoology, education, internal improvements, &c. With a separate map of each county. The whole forming a complete history of the state. Utica, John W. Fuller & Co., 1851, p. 400) 

Those flat plains were an excellent, easy way to cross Book of Mormon lands, from east to west, as discussed on the Line Bountiful page.


To compare the Sea of Galilee with Lake Tonawanda is to give some perspective.

Q. How big is the Sea of Galilee?

A. 13 miles x 8 miles.


Q. Is the Sea of Galilee fresh or salt water?

A. Freshwater.


Q. Is the Sea of Galilee an inland freshwater lake?

A. Yes.


Q. Does the Bible distinguish “salt” seas?

A. Yes. “coast of the salt sea eastward” (Numbers 34:3) 



This area is known as the Tonawanda State Wildlife Management Area, the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Oak Orchard State Wildlife Management Area, and the Bergen-Byron Swamp.

Wildlife Refuge

 These are current ground level images of Lake Tonawanda, it still exists:


 In the following official USA National Wetlands map, the dark blue areas are recogenized as “lakes”:

 Tonawanda Wetland Map

 [Full Size]

 The overall shape of the lake is represented in the following Tonawanda Creek Watershed Area map. [Geography enthusiasts who use topographical maps as a base for their models need to respect the flow of the water and the lay of the land. We are using an official watershed map, without artistic embellishments.]

Please note the direction of the arrows. The entire area today funnels to a single outlet at the Niagara River in the City of Tonawanda:

Tonawanda Watershed Map

 The next map shows The Book of Mormon geography details. Please note the brown area is the Narrow Passage, which had a body of water on each side of it, and was just north of the City of Bountiful/Buffalo.

Tonawanda Watershed Map Overlaid

It should be noted that before the land changed at the coming of Jesus, Lake Tonawanda drained northward, not westward. (See Land Changed.) Today, Tonawanda Creek reminds us of what was once the deepest parts of Lake Tonawanda. When it rains and the water routes are full, it is easy to imagine how it used to be.

“The National Weather Service warned the creek would rise to about 16 feet — about 4 feet above flood level.” (“FLOODING: Tonawanda Creek reaches flood stage, starts to overflow,” Lockport Union-Sun & Journal Online, 12/30/08) “…The height to which the creek surface is likely to rise in a 100-year-storm event — is 578 feet…” (“PENDLETON: Flood map appeal focused on Tonawanda Creek model,” Lockport Union-Sun & Journal Online, 03/05/09)

Homeowners, drivers watch for flooding:


Current Flood Levels

Evidence of the northerly flow of water of Tonawanda Creek/Lake Tonawanda anciently is depicted in the feeder account that connected Tonawanda Creek to Oak Orchard Creek which flows into Lake Ontario:

“Nearly a century ago the state constructed, and since that time has maintained, a feeder connecting Tonawanda creek with Oak Orchard creek in the town of Alabama, Genesee county, N.Y., the purpose of which feeder was to augment the volume of water in the long, western level of the Erie Canal.” (The New York supplement, Volume 189, West Publishing Company, p. 573)

Tonawanda Creek, Lake Tonawanda, Oak Orchard Creek Feeder

The following map shows east and west drainage along the same latitude with Tonawanda Creek on the left and Black Creek on the right. During Book of Mormon times, both creeks flowed into Lake Tonawanda. Primary drainage of Lake Tonawanda is northward by multiple streams and rivers which flow into Lake Ontario. These rivers are of considerable size and were used to import timber inland as stated in the text.

Tonawanda Creek and Black Creek